TOGAF Learning Outcome: General Definitions

The Candidate must be able to understand and explain the following definitions from Chapter 3:
1. Application

  • A deployed and operation IT system that supports business functions and services.
  • Applications use data and are supported by multiple technology components but are distinct from the technology components.

2. Application Architecture

  • A description of the structure and interaction of applications as groups of capabilities that provide key business functions and manage the data assets.

3. Architecture

  • A formal description of the system, or a detailed plan of the system at component level, to guide its implementation.
  • The structure of the components, their interrelationships and the principles and guidelines governing their design and evolution over time.

4. Architecture Building Block

  • A constituent of the architecture model that describes a single aspect of the overall model.

5. Architecture Development Method

  • The core of TOGAF.
  • A step by step guide to develop and use an enterprise architecture.

6. Architecture Domain

  • The architecture area being considered in a phase. There are 4 domains: B, D, A & T.

7. Architecture Framework

  • A contractual structure used to develop, implement and sustain an architecture.

8. Architecture Principles

  • A qualitative statement of intent that should be met by the architecture.
  • A sound architecture principle has at least a sound rationale and a measure of importance.

9. Architecture Vision

  • A succinct description of the target architecture that describes its business value and the changes to the enterprise that will result from its successful deployment.
  • It serves as an aspirational vision and a boundary for detailed architecture work.

10. Baseline

  • A specification that has been formally reviewed and agreed upon, that thereafter serves as the basis for further development or change and that can be changed only through formal change control procedures or a type of procedure such as configuration management.

11. Building Block

  • Represents a potentially re-usable component of business, IT or architectural capability that can be combined with other building blocks to deliver architectures and solutions.

12. Business Architecture

  • A definition of the structure and interaction between the business strategy, organization, functions, business processes and information assets.

13. Business Governance

  • It is concerned with ensuring that the business processes and policies deliver the business outcomes and adhere to relevant business regulation.

14. Capability

  • An ability that a person, organization or system possesses.
  • Capabilities are typically expressed in general and high level terms and typically require a combination of organization, people, processes and technology to achieve. e.g. marketing, customer contact, or telemarketing.

15. Concerns

  • The key interests that are crucially important to the stakeholders in a system. and determine the acceptability of the system.
  • Concerns may pertain to any aspect of the system’s functioning, development or operation, including considerations such as performance, reliability, security, distribution and evolvability.

16. Constraint

  • An external factor that prevents an organization from pursuing particular approaches to meet its goals.

17. Data Architecture

  • A description of the structure and interaction of enterprise’s major types and sources of data, logical data assets, physical data assets, and data management resources.

18. Deliverable

  • An architectural work product that is contractually specified and in turn formally reviewed, agreed and signed off by the stakeholders.
  • A deliverable represents the output of a project.

19. Enterprise

  • The highest level of description of an organization, typically covers all missions and functions.
  • An enterprise will often span multiple organizations.

20. Foundation Architecture

  • Generic building blocks, their interrelationships with other blocks, combined with principles and guidelines that provide a foundation on which more specific architectures can be built.

21. Gap

  • A statement of difference between two states.
  • Used in the context of gap analysis where the difference between Baseline and Target architecture is identified.


22. Governance

  • The discipline of managing, monitoring and steering a business (or IS/IT landscape) to deliver the desired business outcome.

23. Information

  • Any communication or representation of facts, data or opinion, in any media or form, including textual, graphical, numerical, cartographic, narrative, or audio-visual form.

24. Information Technology (IT)

  • A term commonly assigned to a department within an organization tasked with provisioning some or all of following subject areas: Business Continuity, Business IT Interface, Business Process Modeling and Management, Communication, Compliance and Legislation, Computers, Content Management, Hardware, Information Management, Internet, Off-shoring, Networking, Programming and Software, Professional Issues, Project Management, Security, Standards, Storage, Voice and Data Communications

25. Logical

  • An implementation independent definition of the architecture, often grouping related physical entities according to their purpose and structure.

26. Metadata

  • Data about data, of any sort in any media, that describes the characteristics of an entity.

27. Metamodel

  • A model that describes how and with what the architecture will be described in a structured way.

28. Method

  • A defined repeatable approach to addressing a particular type of problem.

29. Methodology

  • A defined, repeatable series of steps to address a particular type of problem
  • Typically centers on defined process, but may also include definition of content.

30. Model

  • A representation of a subject of interest.
  • A model provides a simpler, smaller scale and/or abstract representation of the subject matter.
  • A model is constructed as a ‘means to an end’

31. Modeling

  • A technique through construction of models, which enables a subject to be represented in a form that enables reasoning, insight and clarity concerning the essence of the subject matter.

32. Objective

  • A time-bound milestone for an organization used to demonstrate progress towards a goal.

33. Physical

  • A description for a real-world entity. Physical elements in an enterprise architecture may still be considerable abstracted from the solution architecture, design or implementation views.

34. Reference Model (RM)

  • A reference model is an abstract framework for understanding significant relationships among the entities of an environment, and for the development of consistent standards or specifications supporting that environment.
  • A reference model is based on a small number of unifying concepts and may be used as a basis for education and explaining standards to a non-specialist.

35. Repository

  • A system that manages all of the data of an enterprise, including data and process models and other enterprise information.

36. Requirement

  • A statement of need that must be met by a particular architecture or work package.

37. Solution Architecture

  • A description of a discreet and focused business operation or activity and how IS/IT supports that operation.
  • A solution architecture typically applies to a single project or project release.

38. Solution Building Block (SBB)

  • A candidate solution that confirms to the specification of an architecture building block (ABB).

39. Stakeholder

  • An individual with interests in, or concerns relative to, the outcome of the architecture.

40. Strategic Architecture

  • A summary of formal description of the enterprise,
  • Provides an organizing framework for operational and change activity.
  • An executive level long-term view for direction setting.

41. Target Architecture

  • The description of the future state of the architecture being developed for an organization.

42. Technology Architecture

  • A description of the structure and interaction of platform services, and logical and physical technology components.

43. Transition Architecture

  • A formal description of one state of the architecture at an architecturally significant point in time.

44. View

  • The representation of a related set of concerns.
  • A view does not have to be graphical or visual in nature.

45. Viewpoint

  • A definition of the perspective from which a view is taken.
  • A view is what you see, and a viewpoint is where you are looking from.
  • It a specification of the conventions for constructing and using a view.



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